Paige and Erin's Notes

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Paige and Erin's Notes

Post  Hanna on Thu Aug 28, 2008 8:59 pm

Lecture Notes 8/25
History requires supporting evidence. It is ultimately the study of the human condition.


Our 5 Senses+ Intuition give us information about experiences, but they can be fooled.
Ex. Red shirt crisis with a color-blind person.

Opinions are subjective. Opinions that deny obvious truths are not necessary to listen to. Some unrealistic opinions are formed, because people didn't want something to happen, or it shames them that an event occurred.

Ex. The Holocaust did not happen is an unrealistic opinion because of the eye-witness accounts, documents, pictures, etc.

We should examine opinions, but we do not have to accept them (discrimination).

Facts can prove parts of history while leaving others open to opinion.

Ex. Jesus Christ existed and thought he was the son of God, because of Christian, Jewish, and Roman accounts of the time. The faith/opinion based part is that he was actually the son of God/rose from the dead.

Toleration-If you don't believe what I believe that does not make you an intolerant person. True toleration listens to opposing view points without requiring change in belief.

Judgements- Judgements are a required part of life. Pointing out stupidity is a good thing as long as it is based on evidence and values.

Because you believe something does not make it true.

Post modernism-everything is subjective.
Ex. Leaping into the "non-existant" wall.

Faith- belief in something you can't prove...not based on evidence.

Objective Reality and Truth-based on evidence


Lecture Notes 8/27

1859-Due to Darwin’s Theory of Natural selection, which would have been considered heresy a century ago, human existence is no longer completely credited to God. Darwin’s scientific approach relates back to the Greek era rather than the current one based on faith and religion.

Roman Empire:
Society was structured due to laws, political structure, which helped to prevent corruption, and law enforcement.

Fall of Roman Empire ends this social security and becomes the Holy Roman Empire. Feudalism becomes the law of the land and the Catholic Church dominates society. Law and justice consist of removal of heresies. (Middle Ages)

Feudalism: A society, which consisted of small communities centered around the spiritual power of the church and the secular power of the manor lord. Most people lived on a manor, which consisted of the castle, the church, the village, and the surrounding farmland. The manor lord owned land below his fortress, tools, animals, mills etc… The serfs who were considered the lowest class rented everything from the lord paid taxes to him and worked the land worked the farmland in exchange for protection. The lord owned most everything including the forest and the animals there. People also paid great amounts to the church, which was the greatest landowner in Europe. The church becomes more and more powerful.

Apostolic Succession- the succession of bishops in uninterrupted lines, historically traceable back to the original twelve apostles

Order of Church- Pope
Cardinals {Aristocrats
Parish Priest
Siony- selling of church offices Manor lords often bought their sons into the aristocracy.

522A.D.-Muslim faith spreads

1099A.D.- Crusades. Catholic Europe is under siege by the Muslims. The Muslims capture Jerusalem and Constantinople. Christian knights unite to regain the Holy Land and push the Muslims out of Israel.

As a results of the crusades, CULTURES CLASH- In Western Europe, reading other literature other than the Bible was considered heresy and therefore other literature was burned. Eastern Europe however still had the works of Homer, Virgil, Plato etc…

Vulgate (bible)- The Bible translated by Jerome was translated from Latin to another type of Latin. In the translation, much of the meaning of the Bible was lost. The Vulgate became the definitive and officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. The original Greek manuscript of the bible was found buried but didn’t match up to the Vulgate. The Roman church officials claimed that the Greek version was incorrect.

Matt. 16:18- “And I say also to you, that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.” Peter becomes the first Pope. While the name ‘Peter’ actually derived from the Greek word ‘Petros’ meaning pebbles, the church claims the name is actually derived from the word “Petra” meaning rock. Because of this the church uses this verse as a way to proclaim everything must come the Catholic Church.

Renaissance- Classical learning is reborn due to the cultural clashes from the crusades. Exposure to writers such as Plato reshapes philosophy of the people. People decide to fis the bible according the Greek originals. People start to question the Catholic Church. Many who speak out against the church are tried and killed. People reconsider the accepted values of the world.

Pre-Renaissance Post Renaissance
Only church officials were educated Widespread of education
Humanity considered evil Find beauty of humanity made in the image of God

Protestant Reformation- challenge Catholic power and authority

Martin Luther- Posts the grievances on the church door and starts reformation. Martin
Luther claims the Catholic practice of buying indulgence skip purgatory is a sin and that
grace and salvation can only come from God (Sola fide). People accepted his ideas and
the Lutheran church was founded after his ideas. Martin Luther is excommunicated from
the church. However he survives because of close friends and the distraction when
fighting breaks out.


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